Given the theme of trains, one cannot help but recall such a concept as “station”. Although there are bus, river, sea, air (airport) stations, most often in the minds of citizens, this concept is strongly associated with the railway. The fact is that traveling by train to date is the cheapest and most affordable for residents of almost every country where there is a railway.
A station is a complex of one or more buildings built to serve passengers and sort luggage. They are located at especially important traffic points (in the case of railways – in the largest settlements).
Traditionally, at the stations you can not only get in or out of any transport, but also find out the train schedule, buy a ticket at the box office, leave your luggage in the luggage room, go to the toilet or eat at a local cafe. Also, many stations are equipped with waiting rooms, lounges (or hotels), where each passenger can wait for their train or relax and tidy up.
Trains are one of the most important modes of transport around the world. Millions of passengers travel by train every day and it is no longer surprising that you can buy a train ticket on the website without leaving home and board the train by simply presenting an e-ticket (boarding ticket) on paper (A4) or on a mobile device screen and document. which proves the identity of the passenger (electronic application). Often only a passport is enough.
Although trains appeared much earlier than road transport, and even more so than air transport, in fact the appearance of railway communication is, one might say, more recent. Even 200 years ago, no one could have imagined that people would soon be able to travel comfortably any distance without the help of horses. The same goes for freight transport and mail delivery: only the railways managed to create a single transport system in the vast territories of America, Europe and Russia, which significantly affected the development of the economy. So when and where did the first train in the world come about and what was its speed?
A prototype of a modern train
The prototype train, very primitive, can be called a wheelchair, which began to be used in the 18th century in Europe. Between certain points, for example, mines and villages, wooden beams (beds) were placed, which served as modern rails. On them, carts moved back and forth, moved by horses or … people. At the end of the 18th century, individual carts began to be interconnected with iron rings in order to increase the efficiency of transport. These are short trains of several loaded carts, which are transported on wooden rails with the help of horses, and have become a prototype of those trains used in our time.
Russia is not far behind England. The first freight train with locomotive traction was launched in 1834, and already in 1837 the Carskoye Selo railway was built and opened, on which passenger trains ran at a speed of 33 km / h. The honor of creating the first Russian steam locomotive belongs to the Cherepanov brothers.
The first steam locomotive
In 1804, the English engineer-inventor Richard Treitwick showed curious spectators the first steam locomotive. This construction was a cylindrical steam boiler, to which a tender was attached (a wagon with coal and a place for a furnace) and one wagon in which those who wished could ride. The first steam locomotive did not arouse much interest among mine owners and mines, which is exactly what Treitwick wanted to interest. Perhaps his, in fact, ingenious invention was ahead of its time, as is often the case. The high cost of rail materials, the need to create all the details of the locomotive by hand, the lack of resources and qualified assistants – all these negative factors led to the fact that in 1811 Treitwick left his job.
The first freight train
Using Treitwick’s drawings and development, many European engineers began to actively create and improve different types of steam locomotives. Since 1814, several models (Blucher, Puffing Billy, Killingworth, etc.) have been designed, which have been successfully operated by the owners of large mines and mines. The first freight trains could carry about 30-40 tons of cargo and reach speeds of up to 6-8 km / h.
The first main train
On September 19, 1825, the first public railroad between Darlington and Stockton ran the first train operated by its creator, George Stephenson. The train consisted of a locomotive “Movement”, 12 freight cars with flour and coal and 22 cars with passengers. The mass of the train, together with the cargo and passengers, was 90 tons, the speed of its movement on different sections was from 10 to 24 km / h. For the sake of comparison: today the speed of passenger trains is on average 50 km / h, and high-speed trains such as “Sapsan” – 250 km / h. In 1830, the Liverpool-Manchester highway was opened in England. On the opening day, the first passenger train with a mail wagon passed through it – also the first in the world.
I often travel by train. great distance and not really, every time I try to notice for myself something useful, necessary, convenient, and then such a wonderful post came in handy, supplementing it with my comments, I decided to make a selection of useful tips and secrets on how it is easier / more convenient to travel by train. Enjoy!-)
- Interrupted route. Each person can get off the train at the station, stay there for a while and travel on the same ticket, but with a different train.
Stopping on the road is really possible for up to 10 days, once in any city on the route that you like. Only within 4 hours after arrival, you need to go to the station administrator and mark the ticket separately, when you go further, “validate” the ticket, you may have to pay extra, but not much. There are categories of travelers who can make more than one such stop, the disabled and their companions and the veteran category, and several other categories of users.
- Side seats, close to the toilet. In the wagon with reserved seats, the well-known “side, next to the toilet” are seats 37, 38.
If the door is slammed and there is no passage!
So, the sidebar is close to the toilet.
This place is damn, tell everyone.
Don’t keep thirty-seven at the box office!
- Sockets. The sockets on the reserved seat are located near the boiler, opposite the toilet on the non-working side, in the second and eighth part of the wagon with the reserved seat (39-40 and 51-52). In compartment between compartments 3 and 4 and between compartments 7 and 8 in the hallway. If they don’t work – just ask the conductor to turn them on.
- Buy a seat in a two-seater compartment. The standard wagon has 54 seats, but after the introduction of the obligatory provision of passengers with bedding, the reserved seat became two seats less. The guides were awarded 53.54 seats. in coupe wagons, the coupe for 2 seats was confiscated from the conductor and assigned numbers 37-38, and the first coupe with seats 1-4 was withdrawn from traffic. This scheme works only on trains that run longer than 36 hours and only on Russian railways. When buying a coupe ticket, try to buy seats 37-38, you will go almost as in SI.
- Fridge. Each car has two “winter refrigerators”, each with a capacity of 150 liters (previously held emergency fuel supplies for titanium and heating system, and then with the widespread introduction of electric heating space was left empty, but instructions remained, so it turned out to be a sudden nishtyak of new electrical technologies), so all scented products can be asked to be removed by conductors, not forgetting the prize.
- Reserve tickets at the box office. Each train has so-called “reserved seats”, called “NP Personal Reserve”, two seats in compartment carriages and three in a reserved seat. They do not usually go on open sale, but are issued to those who go on business trips from the state. structures or for burial.
- Luggage. Of course, no one resents those 80 percent of people who break the baggage rules, who say: that hand luggage and luggage can weigh a total of 36 kilograms (in 50 kg CB) in weight and 180 cm in total circumference (length + height + width). On intercity trains, the passenger may carry baby carriages, kayaks, bicycles without engines in disassembled and packed form at the expense of the determined permitted amount of luggage.
- Train chief. NP – King and God on the train, while the train on the road does not listen to anyone (not even Jakunin), but everyone without exception listens to him – both conductors and electromechanics. You can find the head of the train like this: this is the compartment closest to the dining car. The IR is either in the IR office, or in the first compartment (LR coupe), or moving in the train. But even if he escaped by train, it’s easy to find him, he’s only on the train once, you’re looking for a person with two (three in branded trains) stars on his shoulder straps. One star is also the head, but only the so-called PEM (train electrician) replaces the NP at night. If, however, the car in which the NP travels is identified from the outside, by an antenna made in the shape of a long wire stretched over the roof of the car.
- Electronic registration. If the electronic registration has passed, then the ticket can be printed no later than one hour before the departure of the train. Then the lists come to the conductor and the card can no longer be printed. Obviously, this was done in order to exclude the possibility of returning the ticket, but according to the list of conductors. Accordingly, it works the other way around – you can register online no later than one hour before departure, otherwise you must print the ticket purchased online at the terminal or box office.
- The key. The key is triangular, it can open and close the intermediate car door and toilet, as well as windows. But be careful, if you get caught – they can be removed from the train. This key can be purchased at the Expedition or taken from the elevator worker.
- Shower. There is a shower on the ceiling of the toilet, closed with the same triangular key. In summer, washing is quite possible, because the tanks are on top and the water is well heated.
- Music in cars. It depends on the personal preferences of the NP, so you can’t guess whether you can get to Kadisheva with Mihajlov, or you can get to the Beatles with Queen.
- Windows. Try not to buy tickets for places with numbers 9-12 49-50, 21-24 43-44, the windows are empty.
- Bed. If you do not pay for the bed, then you can not use a mattress and pillow. You are not required to collect and hand over the bed (unless, of course, this is not your gesture of goodwill to help the conductor). in exceptional cases, with the consent of the passenger, it is allowed to remove the bed linen no later than 30 minutes before arriving at the train station to disembark the passenger.
- If there are no tickets. If you take a ticket for a train passing, for example, from city “A” to city “B”, but there are no tickets, then take it to the nearest next station “C”, and “Oh” a miracle! tickets! “It’s because of the reserves under the settlement. Just go earlier and that’s it.