The train is the type of transport that CIS residents most often use if they need to travel outside their place. At the same time, few people know that before the advent of the railroad, the word “train” was called another mode of transport. Let’s find out which ones, and also get a little acquainted with the history of trains, their types.
The train is…
Today, this word refers to a train of several wagons attached to a locomotive that runs the entire train. As a rule, trains have a “head” (beginning) and a “tail” (end), on both sides of which a locomotive is attached. Depending on which of the locomotives is currently pulling the wagons, the location of the “head” and “tail” of the train may change.
By the way, not everyone knows, but even the locomotive itself without the wagons attached to it also belongs to the concept of “train”.
In CIS countries, trains are numbered to avoid confusion. Wagons also get numbers, and they remain unchanged even if the “head” of the train changes.
What used to be called a “train”.
In Russia, the word “train” appeared much earlier than mankind even invented rail transport. In the old days, it was called a convoy consisting of a series of carts that followed one another (in winter – sledges). Such trains were used by the army, but also by merchants to transport food and weapons, in order to deliver their goods from one place to another.
With the advent of the railway, the word known to the people of the Russian Empire began to be used as a name for the steam locomotive itself and for it in combination with wagons. By the way, the cars themselves initially continued to be called crews.
Interestingly, in this sense, the term “train” is used today only during wedding festivities. This is the name of the solemn procession of the groom, which accompanies the bride’s house to take her to the church or registry office.
The origin of the term
The noun “train” is the original Russian word derived from the noun “travel”, and before that – from the verb “to drive” (to move with the help of a vehicle).
The verb itself existed in the Proto-Slavic language. For this reason, it has been preserved in modern Ukrainian („̈zditi“), Belarusian (“ezdzit”), Bulgarian (“yazdya”), Czech (jezdit), Polish (jeździc) and other Slavic languages.
The first railway in the Russian Empire
It was first launched in Europe in September 1830. Practical Europeans soon realized how convenient and practical it was, and most importantly, how cheap the new mode of transport was, and soon the territory of the most advanced countries was covered by a railway network.
A few years after the first train was put into operation, the inhabitants of the Russian Empire became interested in it, and they started working on creating their own locomotive.
As early as 1836, there was the first attempt to start the train by rail, however, then, instead of a steam locomotive, the wagons were pulled by a harnessed series of horses. After successful tests in 1837, the train St. Petersburg – Tsarskoe Selo was established, which ran on a specially built railway. It is important to note that the steam locomotive for the movement of this train was used only on weekends, and on weekdays, instead, the wagon train was pulled on the rails by harnessed horses in the old-fashioned way.
It is worth noting that the successful demonstration of the first railway and its capabilities contributed to the development of this infrastructure throughout the empire, and by the beginning of the new century in Russia there was a whole network of railways.
What types of trains exist
Train classification is done on different bases. To understand which train belongs to which type, you need to know clearly its speed, length, mass, travel distance and type of cargo.
- By speed, trains are: fast (more than 50 km / h), fast (140 km / h), fast (200-250 km / h) and accelerated (no exact speed, but they move faster than fast and fast, do not transport passengers).
- In length – plain without a name, a long piece, increased in length and connected by several trains.
- By weight – super-heavy and increased weight (more than 6000 tons).
- By range – suburban, intercity (more than 150 km), direct (follow more than twice), local (follow less than 700 km within the same road), transient, stationary (travel from one station to another), teams are delivered to different stations).
- According to the type of cargo, trains are passenger, freight (freight), freight-passenger, freight-luggage, postal-luggage and military.
- By regularity: summer, one-time, all year round.